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London: Sectors – with PM

  1. Introduction.
  2. Animals and Wildlife.
  3. Arts, Museums and Monuments
  4. Building Construction, Built Environment and Architecture.
  5. Charities and Voluntary Enterprises.
  6. Commerce, Banking, Insurance and Financial Services.
  7. Communications, Media and Telecom.
  8. Computers and Technology.
  9. Defence and Military.
  10. Design Services and Consultancy.
  11. Emergency and Life Safety Services.
  12. Event Management, Exhibitions and Entertainment.
  13. Government - National and Local.
  14. Healthcare and Wellbeing.
  15. Hotels, Hospitality and Tourism.
  16. Industry and Science.
  17. Infrastructure and Civils.
  18. Knowledge and Education.
  19. Law and Order.
  20. Maritime and Shipping.
  21. New Technology.
  22. Places of Worship.
  23. Public Realm, Parks and Open Spaces.
  24. Regeneration, Reclamation and Rejuvenation.
  25. Residential.
  26. Retail and Wholesale Markets.
  27. Sports and Leisure.
  28. Sustainability, the Environment and Green Issues.
  29. Transport.
  30. Utilities.

0. Introduction.

When you ask practitioner project managers what do they often tell you which sector they work in; and then when pressed tell you that they are a project manager or in project management.

People have great loyalties to their sectors, and to their employers and colleagues, so that they may spend their whole working careers in single sectors or situations or very closely linked.

Consequently this module addresses the sectors which have interests and achievements in projects and in project management - in London, with some recommendations and suggestions. There are just so many sectors represented within London as indicated by the attached menu in alphabetical order.

The Exceptions and Exclusions

However despite this breadth not all sectors are fully represented in London. Consequently for those with such other interests there may be opportunities to visit other parts of the United Kingdom and elsewhere where such sectors may be better represented and available.

Such other sectors might include say: aerospace; agriculture, farming and forestry; chemicals and processing; coastal features; defence; energy including renewables, nuclear, oil and gas; fishing; further local government; manufacturing and assembly; media; mining and extraction; shipbuilding and repair; utilities; and other.

However for potential visitors interested in these "excluded" sectors there are opportunities to see contrasting sectors in London for inspiration and benchmarking.

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1. Animals and Wildlife.

For those with interests in animals and wildlife London has a remarkable range of urban, suburban and rural attractions.

Many Project Managers are aware of the requirements for 'soft' skills. This is often seen as dealing with people within teams, as stakeholders, in public.

However an indication of the maturity and sophistication of a culture or society in which a project manager may practice can be observed by the treatment of animals - domesticated, farmed and in wildlife.

London has a mixed history in centuries past in such matters but currently has an aware and positive outlook.

There are many places of interest, institutions with London bases to visit and open spaces.

There are opportunities for project management skills in the leisure and entertainment sectors related to animals and wildlife; also in animal charities; in agriculture - from improving production to bringing products to market - in UK and globally.

  • London Zoo Plus Whipsnade. ZSL - Zoological Society of London.
  • City Farms - Mudchute City Farm, E14 3HP; Surrey Docks Farm, SE16; Oasis / Jamie's Farm, Waterloo; Hackney City farm, 1a Goldsmiths Row, London E2 8QA.
  • Royal Parks - Hyde Park, Green Park, St James's Park, Regent's Park and Primrose Hill, Kensington Gardens, Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Greenwich Park, Brompton Cemetery, Victoria Tower Gardens.
  • Richmond Park, Bushy Park and beyond - with parakeets.
  • Battersea Dogs Home.
  • Down House - former home of Charles Darwin.
  • RSPCA and other animal charities.
  • Epping Forest and other outer green spaces.
  • London Squares and Parks - the lungs of London.
  • Kew Gardens - including Palm House and Temperate House.
  • Cleaning up the River Thames.
  • Animal Hospital.
  • Horse Hospital from 1794 - Grade II listed - also now an art gallery and cultural centre. Plus other residue of peak horse occupation of late 19th century.
  • Royal Veterinary College, NW1.
  • Green Belt - outside Greater London Boundary and M25.
  • London Aquarium /Sea Life, South Bank, SE1.
  • London Wildlife Trust - with over sixty nature reserves.
  • Anything or anywhere else?

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2. Arts, Museums and Monuments

'First Thursdays' is an event involving 150 galleries and museums in east London which are open late on the first Thursday of each month with exhibitions, tours, etc.

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3. Building Construction, Built Environment and Architecture.

Project management in modern building construction is one of the classic and widespread applications.

There are many project managers and people and organisations with project management skills involved and available in London throughout the lifecycle stages of construction projects and the lifetimes of the resulting buildings in definition, design, delivery and operational uses and occupations.

Buildings tend to go down sometimes and usually upwards on a fixed location. Infrastructure tends to be horizontal below, at or above ground level.

Many of the buildings with sector purposes are covered in their sectors elsewhere in this collection.

This section covers particular building construction techniques and logistics.

The centre of London probably has the most mixed collection of building construction types and ages in the world. However as one proceeds out of the centre so the building types and styles become more uniform - reflecting the progressive growth of the city notably along transport lines in the 19th and 20th centuries.


There are many organisations that have interests and responsibilities for many buildings in London. Information is available on their websites. These include: National Trust; English Heritage; the Preservation of Rural England; Museum of London; Design Museum; and then there are the London Festival of Architecture; New London Architecture; and Open House.

There are a number of professional bodies and trade associations related to the built environment located in the greater London area or having active Branches including:

  • Association for Project Management (APM);
  • Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB);
  • Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE);
  • Institute of Civil Engineers (ICE);
  • Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA);
  • Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS);
  • and other members of Construction Industry Council (CIC), for highways, structures, landscape, safety, fire, research, town planning etc.

Some Tips

Back in the centre of London here are a few tips to take in and appreciate the riches of this building construction variety:

  • Just walk or cycle the streets! But stop frequently and look up (It is difficult and possibly dangerous to walk or cycle and look up at the same time).
  • Take a red London double decker bus and sit upstairs at the front - looking up, down and sideways.
  • Take a river trip and observe the diverse buildings on both banks and close behind.
  • Look for the tower cranes - track down the construction sites - observe the efforts on tight site pitches, with difficult accesses, going down into the ground, and rising into the sky; with the public passing immediately adjacent.
  • For the very latest and recent completed exemplar buildings there are the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Awards, the British Council of Offices (BCO) Awards, Civic Trust Awards and others - as well as previous finalists and winners.
  • There are also the Open House London opportunities to visit a wide range of available properties, premises, installations, gardens and facilities from many eras for a weekend in September each year.
  • The Building Centre on Store Street - with an impressive model of London and for everything that goes into buildings - with talks and events.

These days there is virtually no new build on fresh "green field" sites. Everything is on reclaimed "brown field" sites or is refurbishment or change of use or regeneration - and going upwards rather than sideways. Empty sites are a rarity; usually something has to be knocked down to put something up in its place.

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4. Charities and Voluntary Enterprises.

Doing Good, Doing Well

This third sector of charities and voluntary enterprises, registered with the Charities Commission in UK, is well represented in London. There are local, national and international organisation from quite small and niche to large, global, household names.

Charities need people with project management skills as employees, from sponsors, and as volunteers on a pro bono basis. Such skills are needed for organisational aspects, initiatives as promotions and events for fund raising and for their charitable activities - especially if they deal with disasters and humanitarian crisis for example.

There are monuments, statues and blue plaques for many benefactors and philanthropists with London links.

There are lotteries with charitable interests.


Most of the professional associations and institutions in UK to which project managers may be members will be registered as not-for-profit charities; and if chartered will include obligations to be active in their field for the public good. Similarly for religious bodies and involvements; and many sports clubs in the community. Charities include: NSPCC, RSPCA, Oxfam, Save the Children, British Heart Foundation, Centre Point, Crisis and some with charity shops.

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5. Commerce, Banking, Insurance and Financial Services.

As a Trading Centre or The Trading Centre, London is founded on being a trading centre from its location and earliest Roman days. Ultimately, this was reflected in the extensive docks - which have now been completely removed from the centre of London!

This trading is reflected in the historical livery companies who served the people who were trading and processed the goods which were being traded - adding value. This historical trading remains now principally in financial trading. London remains one of the top recognised global financial trading centres along with New York and Tokyo - although there are many other important national cities as well.

In many cities the business and financial districts are in relatively new locations. London is unusual with modern 21st century buildings on ancient street patterns.

London has a flourishing stock exchange and specialist exchanges. London is the insurance hub founded on Lloyds of London. London is a base for over 300 foreign banks, share dealing, foreign exchange, money markets, futures, options = a prestigious, world leading financial centre:

  • The Stock Exchange, EC2N - access restricted.
  • Lloyds of London - insurance - in Lloyds Building, 1 Lime Street, EC3M 7HA. Futurist building by Richard Rogers, Grade 1 listed.
  • Baltic Exchange - freight - ship and air space.
  • Institute of Directors.
  • Confederation of British Industry (CBI).
  • London Commodity Exchange - coffee, cocoa, sugar, wool.
  • London Metal Exchange for six metals.
  • Gold - bullion market.
  • Mansion House - official residence of the Lord Mayor of London - with tours.
  • Port of London - with the demise of the shipping trade.
  • Royal Mint - "London is a place to make money". Now moved outside London
  • Royal Exchange, EC2R
  • Bank of England and Museum, EC2R.
  • Hop and Malt Exchange - Southwark Street - 1867.
  • Canary Wharf - 'Wall Street on water'.

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6. Communications, Media and Telecom.

Communications and use of media are critical features for many project managers on their projects.

London has an amazing pedigree in the development and use of communication techniques and media formats.

Therefore it is a great place to visit and investigate such matters - past, present and for the future.

For those interested in such matters the following are on offer:

  • BBC West One, Portland Place;
  • BBC Television Centre - White City;
  • BT Tower, W1W;
  • Post Office Museum;
  • Post Office tunnels at Mount Pleasant;
  • historical television transmitters at Crystal Palace and Alexander Palace;
  • Samuel Morse;
  • Freedom of Information Act;
  • the first telephone exchange was in London;
  • tabloid and broadsheet daily and Sunday newspapers - national and London;
  • multiple radio channels.

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7. Computers and Technology.

We are collecting information for a piece on this sector. All contributions gratefully received e.g. Babbage? Ada Lovelace? Open data? Berners-Lee? Hoxton?

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8. Defence and Military.

The defence sector is a major aspect and commitment of the UK GDP for UK national defence and exports - covering the national armed services of Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and British Army plus the private sector providing equipment and services.

With the complexity and criticality of defence projects, programmes and portfolios it is little wonder that project management is so universally applied - with consequential PM posts, positions and careers.

Current defence and military establishments, institutions and manufacturing bases are spread throughout the UK with outposts around the world - as some of the defence contractors and suppliers have truly global presence.

Military personnel returning to "Civvy Street" find natural opportunities in the management of projects as well as in other sectors - to reflect their impressive training and positive outlooks.

Notably, there are two thousand years of military history, accommodation, establishments and celebrations in London, much of which is open to the public and with free entry.

There are many exhibitions and exhibits throughout the capital for this sector including:

  • Imperial War Museum, Lambeth Road, SE1 6HZ.
  • Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon, NW9 5LL - with over 100 types of aircraft.
  • Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, SE18.
  • National Army Museum - in Chelsea plus Chelsea Barracks, SW3.
  • HMS Belfast - on the River Thames.
  • Tower of London - including the Royal Armouries.
  • Cabinet War Rooms - in Whitehall, SW1A.
  • Kelvedon Hatch Secret Nuclear Bunker - in Essex, CM15 OLA.
  • Chatham Historic Dockyard.
  • Greenwich National Maritime Museum, SE10 9NF.
  • Guards Chapel and Museum, SW1E 6HQ.
  • Household Cavalry Museum, Whitehall, SW1 2AX.
  • Honourable Artillery HQ, EC1Y.
  • St Johns Wood Barracks - Kings Troop Royal Artillery.
  • Royal Artillery Museum - on hold.
  • Battle of Britain, at ex RAF Uxbridge, UB10 - No. 11 Group Fighter Command.
  • Apsley House, Duke of Wellington House - at Hyde Park Corner, W2.
  • Changing the Guard - at Buckingham Palace.
  • Horse Guards Parade, SW1 - for the Queen's Birthday Parade / Trooping the Colour - in June - including rehearsals.
  • Remembrance Sunday - at the Cenotaph on Whitehall, SW1A - in November.
  • Lord Mayor's Parade - in November.
  • Army Barracks and Territorial Army establishments - including at Regents Park, Knightsbridge - Hyde Park, Wellington Barracks - St James Park;
  • The Grenadier pub, 18 Wilton Street, SW1X 7NR - with just a little bit of military history!

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9. Design Services and Consultancy.

Let's start with the Design Museum.

Other options include the V&A Museum, Science Museum and Museum of London.

Then there is Design Week.

Let's take a walk round some high streets and just marvel at the variety of fonts and graphics used in all the signage for information, directions, advertising and titles - permanent and temporary - plus graffiti. There is a lot of design in London.

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10. Emergency and Life Safety Services.

London continues to be well served by its emergency and life safety services and police in various forms with security services, fire and rescue services and ambulance services in a variety of organisations backed up by the accident and emergency departments of the National Health Service (NHS).

Furthermore there are the coast guard, RNLI (Royal National Lifeboat Institute), Red Cross and St. John's Ambulance Brigade.

Projects, and project management and project managers are rife in all these organisations - with constant improvements of equipment, systems, technology, upsizing and downsizing, impacts of austerity, new regulations, impacts of terrorism and disasters, constant resource replenishment.

The fire at Grenfell Tower in 2017 has had and continues to have profound and wide-spread effects.

  • London Fire and Rescue Services.
  • Police - Metropolitan - founded in 1829; transport, City, river and secret. However the level of crime related to the River Thames, shipping and cargoes meant that the river police were established from 1798 some thirty one years before the land based Metropolitan Police.
  • Ambulance Service London - via National Health Service (NHS).
  • Secret Services - MI5 and MI6.
  • City of London Police Museum.
  • New Scotland Yard.
  • Hendon Police College.
  • Port of London Authority.
  • Trinity House, EC3N 4DH.
  • Coast Guard.
  • Red Cross.
  • St John's Ambulance Brigade.
  • RNLI - Thames lifeboat Station.

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11. Event Management, Exhibitions and Entertainment.

A Night on the Town?

London is in the top three destinations for theatre, music, comedy and dance along with Paris and New York.

It is assumed that project management people interested in this sector are in fact more interested in how the events are put together and how the venues are made and managed rather than the content of the events themselves.

There are royal events and civic pageantry with splendour - with planning, logistics, rehearsals and events with security aspects - daily, annual and occasional.

Event venues include: football stadia (when not playing football); Earls Court; Olympia, W14; Wembley Arena, Conference Centre and Stadium; ExCel; the O2 Arena; the Barbican, EC2Y; Queen Elizabeth Conference Centre, Westminster, SW1P ; Business Design Centre, Islington, N1; and others.

London events that require event / project management include: London Marathon; the Boat Race; Trooping the Colour; Lord Mayor's Parade; Notting Hill Carnival; Pride Parades; Chelsea Flower Show - at Ranelagh Gardens; visits by heads of states; etc.

Fixed exhibitions include such as Madam Tussauds, London Planetarium, London Dungeons, Baker Street for Sherlock Holmes, and Warner Brothers Studio Tour for Harry Potter.

There are many concerts and music festivals in the open air in summer months. The theatre scene in London is particularly strong - with West End shows with West End production values and prices; with a whole range of lower priced theatres, clubs and shows; with some rather special ones at which to laugh, cry or cheer such as the Players Theatre, Wilton's Music Hall, the Globe and Regent Park Open Air Theatre.

And there are museums, art galleries and historic houses throughout London with fixed and touring events and exhibitions - see section on Places to Visit.

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12. Government - National and Local.

Government in UK is made up of layers - all of which are represented in London. London contains "the mother of Parliaments" at Westminster with the House of Commons of elected MPs (Members of Parliament) and the House of Lords as appointees, hereditary lords and ladies and bishops.

In addition to UK governance London also has probably one of the greatest number and highest concentration of foreign diplomats with Embassies and Consulates from all over the world.

The Government is the party or coalition of parties who have a majority in the House of Commons and who are invited by the monarch to form a Government. The Prime Minister lives at No 10 Downing Street with the Cabinet Office nearby and the Chancellor of the Exchequer next door at No 11.

There is also a Scottish Parliament, a Welsh Assembly and a Northern Ireland Assembly in their respective countries within the UK. The senior ministries with ministers are usually recognised as being for the Exchequer (Finances), the Home Office and the Foreign Office.

There follows long lists of government departments with and without ministers. These lists are provided to demonstrate the ranges of opportunities for project management in Central Government as civil servant staff or as external advisors, consultants and contractors with PM skills or services. Also these lists indicate the range of departments with rules, regulations and requirements that managers of projects are likely to encounter in their project activities.

There are ministries for matters such as:
Attorney General's Office; Cabinet Office; Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy; Department for Digital, Cultural, Media and Sport; Department for Education; Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA); Department for Exiting the European Union; Department for International Development; Department for International Trade; Department for Transport; Department for Work and Pensions; Department of Health and Social Care; Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Her Majesty's Treasury; Home Office; Ministry of Defence; Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government; Ministry of Justice; Northern Ireland Office; Office of the Advocate General for Scotland; Office of the Leader of the House of Commons; Office of the Leader of the House of Lords; Office of the Secretary of State for Scotland; Office of the Secretary of State for Wales; UK Export Finance.

Non-Ministerial departments are:
Charity Commission for England and Wales; Competition and Markets Authority; Crown Prosecution Service; Food Standards Agency; Forestry Commission; Government Actuary's Department; Government Legal Department; Her Majesty's Land Registry; Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC); National Crime Agency; National Savings and Investments; Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills; Office of Gas and Electricity Markets; Office of Gas and Electricity Regulation; Office of Rail and Road; Ordnance Survey; Serious Fraud Office; Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; The National Archives; UK Statistics Authority; UK Trade and Investment; Water Services Regulation Authority.

There is also:

  • Passport Office.
  • Patent Office.
  • Privy Council and Privy Council Office.
  • Public Record Office and Museum.

Information on all Government activities can be recovered from www.direct.gov.uk.

Interesting historic buildings and places also include:

  • Norman Shaw House (MPs), SW1A.
  • Old Treasury Building, SW1A.
  • Old War Office, SW1A.
  • Runnymede - site of the signing of Magna Carta - as Tony Hancock asked "Did she die in vain?"

Local Government

London has large and complicated arrangements for local government with many project management requirements and opportunities for employment. Overall there is the Greater London Authority (GLA) whose headquarters are at City Hall, SE1, on the South Bank near Tower Bridge.

There is a Mayor of London who is not to be confused with the Lord Mayor - of the City of London.

Much of the work is done and services provided by the London Boroughs in Inner and Outer London with 32 boroughs plus the City of London.

Local Government is closely linked with other public bodies such as say with Transport for London (TfL) and Ministry of Transport, with utility companies, with emergency services notably Metropolitan Police, Department for Education for Schools and National Health Service (NHS) for health, medical and wellbeing.

Election constituencies and postal codes do not correspond to local authority boundaries.

In conclusion there used to be a saying that "London is impossible to govern and impossible to leave ungoverned". That may still be the case. And all project managers know that appropriate project governance is vital.

The 32 London Boroughs

Inner London

  • Camden
  • Royal Borough of Greenwich
  • Hackney
  • Hammersmith and Fulham
  • Islington
  • Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
  • Lambeth
  • Lewisham
  • Southwark
  • Tower Hamlets
  • Wandsworth
  • City of Westminster

Outer London

  • Barking and Dagenham
  • Barnet
  • Bexley
  • Brent
  • Bromley
  • Croydon
  • Ealing
  • Enfield
  • Haringey
  • Harrow
  • Havering
  • Hillingdon
  • Hounslow
  • Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames
  • Merton
  • Newham
  • Redbridge
  • Richmond upon Thames
  • Sutton
  • Waltham Forest

Local Government in London can appear to be complicated. For example it is possible for residents and workers of London to be under the influence of the Lord Mayor of London - in the City, the Mayor of London - for Greater London, and a Mayor of a borough who has been internally selected or in some cases elected.

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13. Healthcare and Wellbeing.

The public sector National Health Service (NHS) is a strong advocate of Project Management. Many staff have been sent on PRINCE2 courses with inductions for implementation. Projects cover medical advances and processes, physical facilities and technology. The private sector has its diverse projects as well.

The pharmaceutical sector applies project management to research and development, testing, production and distribution.

The wellbeing activists are in the private and public health sectors as well as in other sectors such as for fitness in leisure and sports sectors.

For a long time London itself has not always been the healthiest place to live and work for inhabitants and visitors - with extensive dangers to health and wellbeing - until at least the 1950s when smokeless fuels became mandatory.

Those with an interest in health and wellbeing may find it difficult to gain access to operational hospitals, health centres and clinics for operational and security considerations; unless by special arrangements through appropriate parties. However, there are many other establishments to visit and eminent institutions to contact.

London has an interesting history of burial grounds, cemeteries, plague pits and memorials at the other end of the healthcare and wellbeing journey. For example the big seven privately sponsored from Victorian times are: Kensal Green Cemetery (from 1832), West Norwood (1837), Highgate Cemetery (1839), Abney Wood, Brompton and Nunhead (all from 1840), Tower Hamlets (1841). Burnhill Fields EC1 is much older; and there are many council run crematoria and cemeteries from the twentieth century.

Other options include:

  • Wellcome Collection and Trust, NW1 2BE;
  • Kings Fund, Cavendish Square, W1G 0AN;
  • Royal College of Surgeons, WC2A;
  • Royal College of Physicians, NW1;
  • Royal College of Nursing, Cavendish Square, W1G 0RN;
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists;
  • Florence Nightingale Museum, SE1 7EW;
  • Nuffield Trust, W1G 7LP;
  • Wolfson Foundation, W1G 9LD;
  • Physic Garden, Chelsea;
  • Old Operating Theatre - near London Bridge;
  • Foundling Hospital or Coram Street plus Coram's Fields;
  • Greenwich Hospital;
  • Chelsea Hospital;
  • Schools of Medicine such as Guys, Kings, St Thomas's, Charing Cross (near Hammersmith), UCL Hospital; National Hospital for Sick Children (Great Ormond Street);
  • Moorfields Eye Hospital;
  • Eastman Dental Hospital;
  • National Hospital Royal College of Pathology, SW1Y;
  • Royal College of Ophthalmologists;
  • Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Care;
  • Royal College of Anaesthetists, WC1B;
  • Royal Brompton National Heart Hospitals;
  • Royal Hospital Museum, Chelsea;
  • Royal Society of Medicine, W1G;
  • Royal Star and Garter Home, Richmond for disabled serviceman and others;
  • Red Cross;
  • hospices, asylums, cottage hospitals, health centres, doctors surgeries….

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14. Hotels, Hospitality and Tourism.

This sector provides many employment opportunities for project managers.

There are many hotel, restaurant and pub guides to assist visitors and residents in books and on the internet.

Fancy a knees up or a shindig or a singalong ("Maybe it's because I'm a Londoner…")?

Staying and refreshing. Eating and drinking or troughing and quaffing.

Transport links provided coaching inns, and the growth and then demise of Railway Hotels; now taken over by airport hotels. There are also Youth hostels.

London was famous for its smoky pubs, warm beer and poor food. But things are changing - the numbers of pubs, including inns, taverns, hostelries, public houses and boozers have declined significantly, however the shear variety of refreshment other than "beer" in pubs can be impressively mind-boggling and gastro pub food can be excellent and good value.

There are pubs from all eras. Even Sir Christopher Wren designed pubs for workmen engaged on St Paul's cathedral and new churches after the Great Fire of London in 1666. Numbers of pubs grow in the 19th century with more pubs named after horses than royalty or other themes. Now many are shops, homes, restaurants or demolished and redeveloped. There are choices of bars, pubs, wine bars, sports bars - some with food others with entertainment, plus hotel bars and cocktail lounges.

Many old historic pubs are still available including say: Ye Olde Mitre in Ely Place, EC1N 6SJ; Red Lion in Crown Passage, SW1; Prospect of Whitby - oldest riverside pub, E1W 3SH; with the Mayflower pub on the opposite south bank; Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese, 17th century, Fleet Street, EC4 2BU; Staple Inn and Cittie of York both in Holborn; Princes Louise on High Holborn - "the most beautiful pub in Britain" - possibly; Magpie and Stump, 1500's, EC4M 7EP; The Spaniards on Hampstead Heath,NW3 7JJ - as visited by Charles Dickens; Waxy O'Connors, an Irish themed pub, W1D 6DD; etc.. And then there is the CAMRA Guide to London's Best Beer Pubs and Bars (Campaign for Real Ale).

Cuisines and catering in London have changed significantly in the last fifty years. The variety of eating establishments is incredibly diverse as are the costs. Nowadays it is easy to find cuisine based on the Americas, British, Chinese, French, Gastropub, Indian, International, Italian, Jamaican, Japanese, Portuguese, Mediterranean, South East Asia, Vegetarian and many more. There is China Town in south Soho on and around Gerrard Street; British or London establishments include such as: Rules Restaurant; together with jellied eels; pie and mash; and full English breakfast.

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15. Industry and Science.

London is based on trade and population - which lead to industry. London was the largest port in the world in the 19th century. London was the largest city in the world in 1800 and yet grew from 1 million to 6 million people in one hundred years. Industry was needed to process the goods arriving and departing, and to serve the needs of a fast-growing and increasingly affluent population.

The Port of London has completely changed, almost disappeared, and yet still exists as a substantial institution with over 95 miles of frontage on the River Thames which deals with a significant £4 billion of UK economy per annum.

Large and mega industries within London with associated trading over the centuries have included: beer brewing, flour milling, sugar manufacturing (Tate & Lyle), silk weaving, early motor manufacturing and cycle assembly, gunpowder and armaments, ship building - in timber and metal, glassware, transport equipment from carriages, horse paraphernalia, buses and train engines and rolling stock.

The breadth of skills and trades in UK industry and science can be seen in the diverse membership of the engineering council with 35 members and 23 affiliates, many of which have headquarters or representation in London.

The Museum of London (MoL) plus MoL East also contain much industry and science with aspects of brewing, flour, sugar, silk weaving, motor manufacturing and cycle assembly; ship building (SS Great Eastern) plus manufacturing of multiple products for assembly - such as for carriages and horses.

Industry could also include Energy.
Going back to medieval watermills on Thames and tributaries. Coppicing for timber. In just a few decades in terms of energy London progressed from candles to oil lamps, to gas for street lighting initially, to lighting inside buildings and vehicles, to electricity. Gas moved on to cooking, hot water and heating. There was cleanliness, light, convenience - all mod cons (modern conveniences). Artesian water pressure, hydraulic and pneumatic systems. But not much natural coal and gas! Kent coal fields and then Northumberland coal by sea. Early gas works and electrical power stations plus early distribution systems. Headquarters of energy companies.

And these days there are moves to low energy, less gas, more renewables, electronic metering - for buildings, industries and vehicles.

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16. Infrastructure and Civils.

London is famous for its 19th century, innovative-at-the-time, civil engineering and infrastructure especially in utilities and transport.

That investment is continuing today with new transport lines and traffic management and with new or upgrading of electricity, gas, water, sewage and communication systems.

  • Tower Bridge.
  • Bridges over the Thames - explained at display at Tower Bridge - with new lighting displays - including Albert Bridge by RM Ordish, Vauxhall Bridge, Lambeth Bridge, Westminster Bridge, Southwark Bridge, London Bridge - of the children's rhyme "falling down", previously as a Roman bridge and with houses on it, also removed to Arizona and confused with Tower Bridge.
  • 22 Tunnels under the Thames.
  • Drainage / Sewer systems - Grossness sewage pumping station; Abbey Mills pumping station - the cathedral of sewage.
  • St Kathryn's Dock.
  • The Embankment(s).
  • Thames Barrier, E16. (1982) 520 m long and protecting 125 square k of valuable real estate and many people. This is a stunning piece of Architecture and a remarkable feat of engineering. Sea levels continue to rise by 2 feet per century through a combination of rising sea levels from global warming, Britain is tilting from the ice age and London is sinking on its clay foundations. More installations like the Thames Barrier will be required to protect low lying populated areas around the world.
  • Brunel Museum.
  • Museum of London East.
  • London Hydraulic Power Company - with over 200 miles of Victorian cast iron at 600 lbs/square inch- up until post war uses - to commercial, industrial and domestic premises.
  • New River Company - a 18th century scheme by Sir Hugh Myddleton that brought water
  • Crossrail.
  • Thames Tideway Tunnel - 16 miles long following the route of the river Thames to Beckton to deal with surplus drainage loads of a combined system with heavy rains.
  • Regent's Canal - of 1816 onwards.?

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17. Knowledge and Education.

To follow.

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18. Law and Order.

Law and order is well represented in London from Magna Carta to Brexit, covering the legal professions, jurisprudence, the bar (barristers are 'called' to the bar), the Ministry of Justice, policing and security services - also expressed as legal and lawyers, crime and punishment or High Courts and Low Criminology.

The legal professions are concentrated in and around the Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn and Grey's Inn around Chancery Lane.

The law courts seem well established in mid-town however they only relocated from Westminster in 1882.

London has had prisons for a long time from the Tower of London to the Clink, Marshallsea, Fleet, Newgate, Bridewell, Millbank and others - some made famous by fiction, particular inmates, riots or notoriety.

More recent prisons include Brixton, Holloway, Wandsworth, Pentonville, Wormwood Scrubs, but even these are being closed down to transfer prisoners to more modern accommodation outside London - with redevelopment of existing sites - as happened in the past.

London also has facilities for young offenders, Magistrates Courts - such as at Bow Street (with original Bow Street Runners), and Horseferry Road, plus County Courts; and ACAS - the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service.

The Metropolitan Police are represented on the streets, at New Scotland Yard, SW1H, at Hendon Police College, NW9, and a diminishing number of Police Stations. There are also the separate City of London Police, the River Police and the British Transport Police - as well as a number of secret services with London presence.

For Project Managers the law of Contract may be of interest as London is a base for the Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) and the New Engineering Contract (NEC).

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19. Maritime and Shipping.

There is a strong history of project management contributions and achievements in this sector.

London is founded as a port and as a river crossing. Shipping has been central to the prosperity and growth of London and Great Britain.

The history of shipping in London up to the modern day can be seen via:

  • St Katherine's Dock;
  • Greenwich National Maritime Museum, SE10 9NF;
  • Historic Chatham Dockyard;
  • Tilbury Container Port;
  • the Canal Museum and canal walks including Regents Canal;
  • the Cutty Sark;
  • HQS Wellington (Livery Hall of Honorary Company of Master Mariners), WC2R;
  • Golden Hinde Educational Museum;
  • the Maritime Trust's Collection of Historic Ships at St Katherine's Dock; "Kathleen & May" schooner at St Mary Overie's Dock; "Lydia Eve" herring drifter and "Robin" coaster in Heron Quays in Docklands: etc.
  • Ship building in the past - at Deptford, Chatham;
  • Great Eastern construction at 20,000 tons;
  • with HMS Thunderer at 20,600 tons - a super dreadnought in 1911.

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20. New Technologies.

London is a centre for new technologies notably around Hoxton and Old Street. We need some text on this sector please - of possible interest to project management. Also possibly on software and hardware of direct interest to project managers. Thank you.

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21. Places of Worship.

There are many religions, places of worship and churches in London reflecting multi-racial, multi-cultural and multi-faith populations.

A surplus of Christian churches and movement of populations have been known to change to synagogues to mosques; with temples, chapels and halls along the way.

  • While London is the capital city within the Church of England the Archbishops of Canterbury and York jointly are the more senior clerics. St Pauls Cathedral; Westminster Abbey; Southwark Cathedral, SE1; Lambeth Palace; Metropolitan Tabernacle, SE11; Salvation Army.
  • Roman Catholic places of worship were reintroduced in mid Victorian times including St Peter's Italian Church, Clerkenwell (1863); St Sophia, Moscow Road, Bayswater (1882); and the impressive Westminster Roman Catholic Cathedral, Victoria Street, Victoria SW1P 1QW, built in 1903, with free entry; and others.
  • Jewish Great Synagogue on Fieldgate Street and at Bevis Marks Synagogue (1699); and more for example Dalston (1885), Stoke Newington (1903), Finsbury Park (1912), Stamford Park (1915) and Golders Green (1922).
  • Russian Orthodox Cathedral, Harvard Road, Chiswick.
  • London Central /Regents Park Mosque (1978); Finsbury Park Mosque; East London Mosque, Whitechapel (1985); and about 400 more.
  • Central Methodist Hall.
  • The Neasden Temple for Hindus (1995).
  • Plus for Sikhs, Buddhists, Hare Krishna and more.

All faiths and their places of worship have websites with information for followers and for visitors.

There are high numbers of schools at primary, infant and first levels with names of saints.

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22. Public Realm, Parks and Open Spaces.

Many projects involve providing, retaining or enhancing the public realm, parks and open spaces - for public or private use and enjoyment - as projects with project management involvements.

London has many such spaces. There are 1700 public open spaces of more than one acre in Greater London covering an area of 67 square miles. The origins are diverse. Some started as parks for royal use only. Others belonged to religious orders. Some are private and remain so. Some were set up and adapted for public use notably in 19th century; some are attached to stately homes; some are in squares and parks for use of adjacent residents only.

Outer Open Spaces:

  • Epping Forest;
  • Hackney Marshes;
  • Richmond Park, TW10;
  • Wimbledon Common;

Royal Parks

  • Regents Park and Primrose Hill;
  • Hyde Park;
  • Bushy Park;
  • Hampton Court Park;
  • Green Park;
  • Brompton Cemetery;
  • St James's Park;
  • Kensington Gardens;
  • Richmond Park, TW10;
  • Greenwich Park;
  • Victoria Tower Gardens.

(more information at www.royalparks.org.uk)


  • Streatham:
  • Wandsworth;
  • Tooting Bec;
  • Clapham;
  • and the like

Inner Spaces:

  • Trafalgar Square;
  • St Paul's precinct;
  • South Bank;
  • Hyde Park Corner;
  • Marble Arch;
  • Battersea Park (1858);
  • Victoria Park;
  • Hackney (1841-48);
  • Finsbury Park;
  • Southwark Park;
  • Holland Park (historic, but open from 1952), W8 6LU etc.

And then there are many Georgian Squares - most incomplete due to wartime bomb damage:

  • Lincoln's Inn Fields;
  • Postman's Park;
  • and many more.

Markets - as open spaces - see Retail and Wholesale Markets.

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23. Regeneration, Reclamation and Rejuvenation.

We welcome contributions for this sector please e.g. covering: Olympic Park, Battersea Power Station site; Greenwich Peninsular and O2; Canary Wharf and Isle of Dogs; Mainline Railway stations / transport hubs; South Bank, Embankment; cycle routes; congestion charge; etc.

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24. Residential.

Housing has always been an issue in London - and always will be. Some of the most expensive high quality, domestic accommodation in the world can be found in parts of Central London; but this is a relatively small percentage of the total units of accommodation. These days many people want to live in Central London or as close as possible for London commuting, convenience and quality of life and facilities. This has not always been the case.

Between the first and second world wars there has an exodus from the centre and more people attracted to outer London with the provision of railway and tube lines to new suburbs and new towns including to 'Metroland'. After the Second World War very few people really wanted to live in inner London with its post-war dereliction, poor quality accommodation and pollution - and continued the outwards migration. This was only seventy years ago. Nowadays there is a great variety of types of accommodation for living - but at such insufficient numbers that prices of buying and renting are high. There are particular shortages of affordable housing for current residents and for key workers.

Much of the housing originates from established estates such as the Eyre Estate, the Portman Estate, the Portland Estate, the Grosvenor Estate, the Bedford Estate and others. There is still valuable church land in London. There are housing schemes by Peabody and Guinness Trusts. There are housing estates and council housing including tower blocks built and owned by London Boroughs or sold on to tenants. There are garden suburbs, model cottages, alms houses, communal living, slums and squats.

For project managers involved in housing and residential provisions at all levels there are examples, advice, expertise, conferences and exhibitions in London.

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25. Retail and Wholesale Markets.

London has a long history of shopping and retail; from the medieval stalls on the previous London Bridge, to Ice Fairs on the frozen River Thames, up to relocated wholesale commodity markets, superstores and prosperous high streets - which are now under pressure.

It is anticipated that project people for this sector are not so much interested in shopping itself but in the means of shopping.

Out of Town Shopping Centres include: Bluewater; Freshwater; Westfield East; Westfield West at White City; Brent Cross; Bicester Village and provincial town centres.

Historic Arcades and Streets include:

  • Royal Arcade, Old Bond Street, W1S 4SL;
  • Burlington Arcade off Piccadilly;
  • Leadenhall Market, Gracechurch Street, EC3V 1LT;
  • Jermyn Street for shirt makers;
  • Saville Row for tailoring;
  • Denmark Street and Charing Cross Road for musical instruments and books including Foyles and antique books;
  • Carnaby Street for Swinging 60s and for tacky to trendy;

London also has specialist shops of every conceivable type - coins, stamps, models, uniforms and militaria, food, wine, confectionary, umbrellas, etc. such as James Smith and Sons, established 1830, for umbrellas and sticks at 53 New Oxford Street, WC1A 1BL.

Major stores include:

  • Debenhams,
  • Fortnum and Mason,
  • Harrods,
  • Harvey Nichols
  • John Lewis,
  • Liberty,
  • Marks and Spencer,
  • Selfridges
  • Fenwicks
  • and more

Product Wholesale Markets include:

  • New Billingsgate - for fish from 1982 at Isle of Dogs;
  • New Covent Garden in Nine Elms(Fruit, vegetables and flowers);
  • Smithfield / Central London Markets at Farringdon, EC1M (meat and poultry);
  • Columbia Market (flowers and plants), E2 7RG;
  • Berwick Street Market in Soho, W1F 0PH;
  • Borough Market, SE1 1TL - wholesale and retail food market since 12th century;
  • Borough Market - a food market founded by the Romans and on its current location for over 250 years;
  • Caledonian Road Market in Market Road for animals - discontinued after WW2;
  • Bermondsey (New Caledonian) Market:
  • Shepherd Market, W1, access via Curzon Street;
  • Portobello Road - antiques plus;
  • Petticoat Lane on Middlesex Street;
  • Spitalfields is a former London Fruit Exchange now a flea market and food court.

There are also Street Food in markets, Farmers' Markets (over forty), antique fairs and car boot sales.

Retail shopping and wholesale arrangements are being modified by purchasing options of mail order, by phone and by internet.

Historical Commodity Markets include: Stock Market; Metals Market; Timber; Coal; Beer and Brewing; Baltic Exchange - destroyed by IRA Bomb in 1992 - now 30 St Mary Axe - "the Gherkin".

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26. Sports and Leisure.

London has been host to the Olympic Games three times in 1908 (IV), 1948 (XIV) and 2012(XXX) - more than any other city - so far. There are still some remnants of the earlier Games and the legacy of the latest events are still being realised.

London has a wide range of sports venues, facilities and teams. Clearly most of them are open to the public when events are taking place. Some events are free, others have low to high ticket prices with early booking required for some events or for discounts or to obtain good or good value seats.

However many clubs and teams also have behind the scenes tours on a regular basis or by special arrangements. Multiple sports and more are also available at Lee Valley.

Here are some suggestions:

Athletics: London Marathon; London Stadium (West Ham FC); Linford Christie Stadium, W12;

Boxing: boxing clubs, gyms and events for amateur, white collar and professional; male and female.

Cycling: historic Herne Hill, SE21; Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and Lee Valley; plus cycle ways; plus route to Box Hill and back.

Cricket Grounds: Lord's (Middlesex County Cricket Club (MCC)) and museum, NW8 8QH from 1814; The Oval (Surrey County Cricket Club), SE11; and many lesser grounds.

Darts: championships at Alexander Palace and Lakeside.

Football / Soccer: for men, women and juniors: in Premiere League, Football League Championship and Leagues One and Two: Arsenal FC; Barnet FC; Brentford FC; Chelsea FC; Charlton Athletic FC; Crystal Palace FC; Dagenham and Redbridge FC; Fulham FC; Layton Orient FC; Millwall FC; Tottenham Hotspur FC(Spurs); Watford FC; West Ham FC; AFC Wimbledon and many non-league teams. Plus Wembley Stadium and for other purposes and sports. The FA Cup Final (Football Association) was first played at the Oval in 1872 and then at Crystal Palace before moving to Wembley in 1920s. Hackney Marshes has most extensive pitches for football especially Sunday League ; and for rugby and cricket.

Greyhound Racing: Crayford, Romford.

Golf: private; municipal; championship such as Sunningdale; with golf schools and driving ranges.

Hockey: Men's and women's Great Britain matches at Lee Valley; with many local clubs

Horse Racing: Sandown Park; Ascot; Epsom.

Ice Skating: at Alexandra Palace, Lee Valley, Queensway, Streatham and in the winter at Broadgate and Somerset House. Plus ice hockey.

Kite Flying: on 'Kite Hill', now Parliament Hill. Motor Sports: Brands Hatch, Swanley, Kent; a number of Go-Kart tracks.

Rowing: there are 200 rowing clubs in London area on lakes, rivers and special courses. The Boat Race between Cambridge and Oxford Universities started in 1829 and annually from 1856, in April, with men's and women's races these days. Henley Regatta, in July, since 1839. River and Rowing Museum at Henley-on-Thames. Eton Dorney lake near Windsor.

Rugby Union: for men, women and at sevens: Twickenham / England with Museum of Rugby and tour, TW2; Harlequins (Quins); Saracens; London Scottish; Richmond; London Welsh; Rugby League: London Broncos, TW8.

Snooker and Billiards: various halls. Surfing: no outdoor facilities. Swimming and Diving: Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park plus many local baths / pools operated by local authorities and fitness clubs; Crystal Palace Pool; plus some open air lidos such as on Hampstead Heath.

Tennis: Wimbledon - The All England Lawn Tennis Club - with Tennis Museum, SW19 5AE; Hurlingham Club, SW6 3PR; Queens Club at Barons Court, W14 9EQ; and many public courts and private clubs - including David Lloyd centres, for all ages and abilities. Also there are other racket sports of badminton, squash, racket ball and table tennis.

Water Sports: rowing on the River Thames; Surrey Docks Water Sports Centre; Watersports Centre N4; Welsh Harp Lake;

Winter Sports: there are a number of indoor ski slopes and ice rinks; with some winter rinks such as at Somerset House and Broadgate.

There are various sports ground and multi-sport fields owned by Universities, Banks and other large commercial organisations. Some are in green belt; others may be suitable or vulnerable for development with the demands of a growing city. Plus health clubs and gyms, some with swimming pools, sauna and steam rooms - by private companies and through local authorities.

Providing and maintaining sports venues and events with great numbers of customers, health and saftey considerations, policing and media aspects requires extensive project management skills and resources.

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27. Sustainability, the Environment and Green Issues.

Fundamentally, sustainability is about keeping things the same. However, in current contexts, to 'sustain' a tolerable human occupation of planet earth requires extensive and prompt change - fundamental, transformational change.

This may not be an environmental revolution but it is certainly a fast evolution. In other sectors we are seeing such fast evolutions over the last two decades in matters such as digital, security, retail and media industries - as complete change-overs. It has (only) taken 25 years to achieve the COP Paris agreement in 2015 - which provides a cohesive launch pad. In this time and going forward there will be further developments and realisations related to technical, political, social and financial attitudes to the environment to address and hopefully remedy the otherwise inevitable climate related catastrophe.

London certainly has its challenges related to the environment as a dense, urban conglomeration with an aging infrastructure in a temperate climate.

Local efforts to deal with these challenges through projects for global mitigation, local adaptation and national crisis include:

  • the Congestion Charge;
  • bicycle routes;
  • the Thames Barrier (1982), E16;
  • pollution control;
  • low energy housing schemes;
  • The Crystal, a sustainable cities initiative by Siemens, E16 1GB;
  • Thamesmead;
  • passive house examples;
  • BedZed (2002), CR4 4HS, etc.

And other aspects notably for energy, vehicles and transport.

Plus Green Sky Thinking events - in May; EcoBuild in March as trade fair for sustainable construction, at ExCel, E16 1XL.

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28. Transport.

For project managers involved in or interested in transport projects London is the place to visit for past, present and future challenges and how they may be addressed.

Traffic lights are a very common feature in London owing to the number of junctions, the lack of roundabouts and the "sheer weight of traffic" on the roads. The first manually operated traffic signals from 1869 were in Parliament Square for a few years. Modern installations started around 1929 growing to over 3,500 units at 300 junctions. And now there appear to be more with pedestrian crossing, cycle routes and special symbols superimposed on red, amber and green - which have also been adopted in some sectors by some project teams for dashboard reporting on statuses.

The expansion and growth of London in 19th century was completely dependent on developments in transport and civil engineering. The bridges over the Thames opened up south of the river with Vauxhall Bridge (1816), Waterloo Bridge (1817), Southwark Bridge (1819) then more and some replacements. Railways and trains at a suburban level, with trams and horse-drawn buses made commuting possible. The underground system, cycles, motor vehicles as cars, buses and motor cycles all assisted people movement.

Transport projects have come a long way and are still on a journey - around the world; and in London. Public transport in London is operated or coordinated by TfL - Transport for London. Here are a few examples of transport that may be of interest:

  • London Transport Museum - in Covent Garden, WC2E 7BB - it is the place to go for transport in London in the last two hundred years up to modern day. Also with trips and tours to secret and disused transport places.
  • This includes the tube map development with the definitive layout by Henry Beck in 1931.
  • Museum of London - for many early forms of transport.
  • The first underground trains from Paddington via Baker Street to Moorgate in current Circle Line as cut and cover.
  • Other deep tube lines from over one hundred years ago, starting with Stockwell to the City in 1890, now with over 270 stations and 402km of track above and below ground, carrying 5 million people per day.
  • New rail services such as Crossrail for The Queen Elizabeth line.
  • Mainline railway stations which are now also retail centres and integrated transport hubs such as: St Pancras - including Eurostar terminus; Kings Cross; Waterloo; Paddington; Victoria; London Bridge; Marylebone; Cannon Street; Liverpool Street; Fenchurch Street and many suburban stations - with many undertaking refurbishment and upgrades while continuing to fully function with limited and limiting track closures.
  • Inner-city airport at City Airport; with international airports at Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and Luton plus Southend; and many several smaller airfields.
  • Docklands Light Railway (DLR) serving East London.
  • Tramway in Croydon; and others muted.
  • BAA Heathrow Visitor Centre.
  • Congestion Charge regime in centre.
  • Cycle ways and bike hire.
  • Comprehensive public bus service; and Victoria Coach Station; SW1W.
  • Public river services, with over 15 boat piers with connections to attractions and piers.
  • Canals.
  • Brompton Bikes - made in Greenford.

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29. Utilities.

We are seeking information, text, or wisdom concerning Utilities in London for this section - with places to visit and people - in addition to Sir Joseph Bazalgette.

Gas lighting was first introduced in London in early 1800s. there are still about 1500 lamps operating in Mayfair and Covent garden. The heat has also been used to draw up and burn off sewer gas at some locations.

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