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eras and epoques



London: Complex and Complicated – Eras and Epochs

London is a remarkable, concentrated demonstration of the complexities of a constantly changing world of modern civilisation and society with previous achievements and many influences close at hand.

In visiting and viewing London there are so many eras and epochs to identify, recognise and appreciate. They are frequently cheek by jowl or even mixed up.

There follows a list of eras and periods - in more or less chronological order. These may seem to be Architectural styles; but they are also in artistic outputs, theatre, music, literature; fashion, decoration and hairstyles; technology and innovation; reflected in names of streets, pubs and places; popular culture and entertainment; political change; and language.

Ongoing influences can be subtle such as in the continued use of Roman numerals and Latin inscriptions.

Some eras are named after royalty; others are descriptive, with foreign connections, timely or have other origins.

The interesting realisation is that they are all present in London, are likely to remain so and will increase further over time.

Some epochs can be derivative as in neo Georgian, Gothic Revival, Edwardian Baroque Revival, short back and sides.

What must be remembered is that only the better examples of earlier periods remain or survive or are conserved and so may be romanticised, not be fully representative; and yet each example was recognised as a new beginning or of its time - at some time.

These circumstances will continue to present themselves to all project management situations - it is called change - past, present and future - it is everywhere in London. Roman; Dark Ages; Saxon; Norman; Early English; Perpendicular; Decorated; Gothic; Medieval; Tudor; Elizabethan (I); Shakespearian; Jacobean; Stuart; Baroque; Commonwealth; Puritan; Cromwellian; William and Mary; Palladian; Classical; Renaissance; Hanoverian; Regency; Georgian; Early Victorian; Dickensian; Late Victorian; Arts and Crafts; Post Impressionism; Beaux-Arts; Art Nouveau; Art Deco; English Baroque; Edwardian; Imperial; Jazz Age; Pre-war; War Time; Post-War; Orwellian; Utilitarian; Churchillian; Brutalism; Modernism; Contemporary (1950s); Post Modern; Elizabethan (II); Minimalist; Flower Power; Mods and Rockers; Thatcherism; Integrated; Holistic; Global; Internationalist; New Labour; and more.

There are also decades from the twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, seventies, eighties, nineties, noughties, twenty-tens, etc.

And there are the centuries although these can be rather simplistic as 21st, 20th, 19th, 18th and that sort of thing.

More recently the wide demographics of people in London mean that there are facilities and influences for all parties including say:

  • The Silent Generation born 1928 to 1945.
  • The Baby Boomers born 1946 to 1964.
  • Generation X born 1965 to 1980.
  • The Millennials (Gen Y) born 1981 to 1996.
  • Generation Z born 1995 to about now.

London reflects and responds to all of these influences.